Types of mountains (volcanic, block and fold mountains.)
Volcanoes: Many mountains with interesting key features and adventures were formed as the result of this feature like volcanoes mountain ranges.
Volcanoes can either be mountains or hills, usually having a cuplike crater at the summit, formed around such a vent from the ash and lava expelled through it.
The Volcanoes are formed when a plate is pushed below another plate, or at a mid-ocean ridge or hotspot. At a depth of around 100 km, melting occurs in rock above the slab and forms magma that reaches the surface.
Then, when the magma reaches the surface, it builds a volcanic mountain, such as a shield volcano or a stratovolcano.
The magma does not have to reach the surface in order to create a mountain: magma that solidifies below ground can still form Dome Mountains, such as Navajo Mountain in the US.
Fold Mountains: Fold Mountains occur as a result when two plates collide, this results to shortening along thrust faults and over thickening the crust.
As a result, the less dense continental crust floats on the denser mantle rocks beneath, resulting to the weight of any crustal material forced upward to form hills, plateaus or mountains.
And thus the continental crust is normally much thicker under mountains, compared to lower lying areas. The rock can fold either symmetrically or asymmetrically.
The down folds form up the synclines and the up folds anticlines; in asymmetric folding there may also be recumbent and overturned folds. The Jura Mountains are an example of Fold Mountains.
Block Mountains: these are mountains formed by the uplift of blocks of the earth's crust caused by faults in the crust, a seam where rocks can move past each other.
When rocks on one side of a fault rise relative or adjacent to the other, it can form a mountain. The uplifted blocks are Block Mountains or horsts.
The intervening dropped blocks are thereby termed as graben: these can be small or form extensive rift valley systems. A good example can be seen in East Africa, the Vosges, the Basin and Range Province of Western North America and the Rhine valley.